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Governance and Policy ResourcesResearch, guidance and services for effective school board governance

Appropriate student discipline is a necessary component of any district policy in order to provide a safe and positive school climate in which students are able to learn and thrive. Unfortunately research shows that harsh approaches to discipline do not improve school safety or improve student success. In fact California suspends more students than it graduates, and data shows that strict discipline policies disproportionately effect African American, Latino, Native American, and students with disabilities more than other student populations. Other negative outcomes of suspension and expulsion practices include:

  • Increased risk of dropping out
  • 2x as likely to repeat a grade
  • 3x as likely to have contact with the juvenile justice system
  • Higher frequency of 'repeat' offenders
  • Lower testing scores

CSBA Resources


Newly revised CSBA policies on discipline/suspension & expulsion as of April 2014

  • BP 5144 Discipline
  • AR 5144 Discipline
  • BP 5144.1 Suspension and Expulsion/Due Process
  • AR 5144.1 Suspension and Expulsion/Due Process

How school districts should address student walkout

CSBA has produced the following resources for districts and county offices of education.

Research Resources

School Discipline Data
This link will take you to an online tool by which to view a particular district’s or pair of districts' rate of suspension for various demographics of students. The data can be broken down by race, race and gender, or race and disability status.
By The Center for Civil Rights Remedies at the Civil Rights Project at UCLA

Truancy, Suspensions, & Expulsions Tool

Additional Resources

California Compilation of School Discipline Laws and Regulations

School Climate and Discipline
By US. Department of Education

Fix School Discipline Toolkit
By the Public Counsel

How the Local Control Funding Formula can fix school discipline: What you need to know.  
By the Public Counsel

How to Support Students Reentering the Classroom After Facing Severe Disciplinary Actions
By the online Master of Social Work program at the University of Southern California.