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Governance and Policy ResourcesResearch, guidance and services for effective school board governance

Appropriate student discipline is a necessary component of any district policy in order to provide a safe and positive school climate in which students are able to learn and thrive. Unfortunately research shows that harsh approaches to discipline do not improve school safety or improve student success. In fact California suspends more students than it graduates, and data shows that strict discipline policies disproportionately effect African American, Latino, Native American, and students with disabilities more than other student populations. Other negative outcomes of suspension and expulsion practices include:

  • Increased risk of dropping out
  • 2x as likely to repeat a grade
  • 3x as likely to have contact with the juvenile justice system
  • Higher frequency of 'repeat' offenders
  • Lower testing scores

CSBA Resources:

Recent legislation on discipline: AB 420
Fact Sheet, Joint Publication of CSBA and Public Counsel, March 2015
 

At The Forefront: Student Discipline Issues
Policy News, April 2014

The Case for Reducing Out-of-School Suspensions and Expulsions
CSBA Fact Sheet, April 2014

Out of sight, out of mind?
California Schools article, winter 2012

Newly revised CSBA policies on discipline/suspension & expulsion as of April 2014

  • BP 5144 Discipline
  • AR 5144 Discipline
  • BP 5144.1 Suspension and Expulsion/Due Process
  • AR 5144.1 Suspension and Expulsion/Due Process

Restorative Practices as Behavioral Intervention - Recorded session at AEC 12/6/13 Play video below:

Data Resources:

School Discipline Data
This link will take you to an online tool by which to view a particular district’s or pair of districts' rate of suspension for various demographics of students. The data can be broken down by race, race and gender, or race and disability status.
By The Center for Civil Rights Remedies at the Civil Rights Project at UCLA

Truancy, Suspensions, & Expulsions Tool
By KidsData.org

Online Resources:

School Climate and Discipline
By US. Department of Education

Fix School Discipline Toolkit
By the Public Counsel

How the Local Control Funding Formula can fix school discipline: What you need to know.  
By the Public Counsel

Research Resources:

What School Discipline Strategies Say about Race Relations in Today's Schools
University of Southern California, January 2018

Understanding School Discipline in California: Perceptions and Practice
EdSource, September 2012

Suspended Education in California
The Civil Rights Project/Proyecto Derechos Civiles at UCLA, April 2012

Classmates Not Cellmates: Effective school discipline cuts crime and improves student success
Fight Crime Invest in Kids, 2012

Discipline Policies, Successful Schools, and Racial Justice
The Civil Rights Project/Proyecto Derechos Civiles at UCLA, October 2011

Suspended Education: Urban Middle Schools in Crisis
The Civil Rights Project at UCLA & The Equity Project, Indiana University, September 2010

Discipline in California Schools: Legal Requirements and Positive School Environments
ACLU of Northern California, March 2010